Evolution of Cardio-Metabolic Risk from Birth to Middle Age: The Bogalusa Heart Study - PDF Free Download (2024)

Evolution of Cardio-Metabolic Risk from Birth to Middle Age

Gerald S. Berenson Editor

Evolution of Cardio-Metabolic Risk from Birth to Middle Age The Bogalusa Heart Study

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Editor Dr. Gerald S. Berenson Department of Medicine, Pediatrics, Biochemistry, Epidemiology Tulane University School of Medicine and School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine Canal Street 1440, 70112 New Orleans, LA USA [emailprotected]

ISBN 978-94-007-1450-2â•…â•…â•…â•… e-ISBN 978-94-007-1451-9 DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-1451-9 Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York Library of Congress Control Number: 2011930402 © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011 No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher, with the exception of any material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)

Foreword

The Bogalusa Study and the work of Dr. Gerald Berenson and colleagues is one of the great successes of recent cardiovascular research. In the early 1970s, the late Dr. Al Tyroler and I had the opportunity of reviewing and site visiting the original grant proposal for a study of cardiovascular risk factors in black and white children in a small community, Bogalusa LA, outside of New Orleans. The Principal Investigator was a highly regarded cardiologist with a major interest in mucopolysaccharides and atherosclerosis. His family had, for a long time, very close ties to the Bogalusa community. Dr. Berenson recognized the potential of the Bogalusa community to provide a scientific base for the origins of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) beginning in childhood. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) had recognized that the study of early origins of CVD beginning in childhood was an important component of their research portfolio. It took little effort to convince an external review group that Dr. Berenson and his team at the LSU School of Medicine could do the study. The Bogalusa Study is clearly one of the very best investments that the NHLBI made back in the early 1970s. Dr. Berenson and I still discuss the early advisory committee meetings when we discussed how to develop a series of hypotheses to test in the Bogalusa Study. He was very fortunate in the early years to have an outstanding statistician, CA MacMahon, working with him at LSU and the late epidemiologist, Antonie Voors. This book reflects the important and unique aspects of the Bogalusa Study: (1) The ability to maintain a cohort from childhood to adult life with an adequate sample size in a defined population to compare black-white differences in determinants of risk factors; (2) the ability to combine excellent and modern physiological and biochemical methodology to an epidemiology population study, i.e. carotid intima media thickness, pulse wave velocity, telomere length, heart rate variability, pathology of coronary arteries; and (3) a very strong commitment to prevention of CVD and especially primordial prevention of key risk factors using community resources, especially the education system. The book reflects all 3 of these very successful components of the Bogalusa Study and especially the importance of Dr. Berenson. His message of the need for prevention of risk factors beginning in childhood is supported by the overwhelming evidence that has been generated initially from the Bogalusa Study and then further supported by similar research in many countries, as also reported in this book. v

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Dr. Berenson is a pioneer in demonstrating that excellent clinical cardiovascular methods could be applied to a study of the evaluation of risk factors and pathology in children and adults. The study population continues to provide an extraordinary resource for epidemiology research. The biggest reward from the Bogalusa Study is whether we can translate the great successes of this study to prevention of CVD beginning early in life as articulated throughout this book, especially in Chaps€11 and 14. Distinguished University Professor of Public Health

Lewis H. Kuller, MD DrPH

Preface

It is a pleasure to highlight some of the findings over the past decade in this third book from the Bogalusa Heart Study. Tribute and appreciation has to be given to the Study subjects, some of whom have participated since 1973. I am overwhelmed with gratitude by the support from the community of Bogalusa and high level of participation that enabled us to obtain perspectives on the evolution of cardiovascular risk from birth through mid-adulthood. This Study is unique in that it remains the only long term study in a biracial (black/white) population beginning in childhood. Recognition needs to be given to the many investigators and support staff that have helped conduct the study: They have exemplified the highest level of commitment and devotion to make this Study successful. Also funding from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institute on Aging (NIA), National Institute on Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the American Heart Association (AHA), was crucial, without which the Study could not have been conducted. Such support made it possible to unravel as much about the natural history of the early origin of coronary artery disease, essential hypertension and type II diabetes mellitus, as our team did. The essence of the many publications of this Study all clearly indicate coronary artery disease, as a prelude to coronary heart disease, primary hypertension, and diabetes, all have their origin in childhood, even with evidence to begin in utero (website: http://tulane.edu/som/cardiohealth/index.cfm). We have noted the importance of a strong family history, that will become more evident as genetic studies evolve. We found risk factors can be developed in early life to diagnose these conditions and show their “silent” burden on the cardiovascular system beginning in childhood. In fact, discussions to follow consider fetal origins of risk factors set the stage for observations beginning in childhood and the need for primordial prevention. The studies of chromosomal telomeres provide some insight into the aging process and impact of environmental stress reflecting black-white contrasts on cardiovascular diseases and the ethnic and gender variations of morbidity and mortality in our population. Understanding such variations provide a background to aid both clinical management and approaches to prevention. A theme throughout the chapters use race and gender contrasts to reflect on different mechanisms and

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complexity of factors related to development of cardiovascular diseases beginning from early childhood. It has been rewarding to me to have founded this program with my colleagues who helped to begin with laboratory and experimental studies related to the complex sugars and connective tissues of arterial wall in atherosclerosis, and to be encouraged by findings from my colleagues in Pathology who earlier found the presence of atherosclerotic lesions in childhood. My interest in cardiovascular disease and the concept of meaningful risk factors related to heart disease in adults by the Framingham Study, set the stage to begin studying children at a population level. Suggestions from my many colleagues have been invaluable. As a corollary to the Bogalusa Heart Study, effective prevention programs have been developed from the findings based on lifestyles and behavior learned in Bogalusa. Application of health education for children in the general public can help abort or at least delay the cardiovascular maladies so common in our society and world-wide. It is our hope that the potential from prevention beginning in childhood will become recognized as an acceptable and common practice. This is our way to address quality of life from its origin and maybe extend to the end of life. Gerald S. Berenson, MD

Contents

1  E xploring Chromosomal Leukocyte Telomere Length Dynamics in the Bogalusa Heart Study����������������������������������尓�����������������   ╇ 1 Abraham Aviv and Wei Chen 2  F etal Origins of Variables Related to Cardio-Metabolic Risk���������������   ╇ 9 Sathanur R. Srinivasan 3  T rajectories of Variables Related to Cardio-Metabolic Risk from Childhood to Young Adulthood����������������������������������尓��������������������� â•… 21 Sathanur R. Srinivasan and JiHua Xu 4  E volution of Metabolic Syndrome from Childhood�������������������������������� â•… 35 Wei Chen 5  B lack–White Divergence Influencing Impaired Fasting Glucose and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus����������������������������������尓�������������������� â•… 53 Quoc Manh Nguyen, Sathanur R. Srinivasan and Gerald S. Berenson 6  B irth Weight, Stimulus Response and Hemodynamic Variability Implicate Racial (Black–White) Contrasts of Autonomic Control of Heart Rate and Blood Pressure and Related Cardiovascular Disease����������������������������������尓����������������������������� â•… 65 Gerald S. Berenson, Pronabesh DasMahapatra, Camilo Fernandez Alonso, Wei Chen, Jihua Xu, Thomas Giles and Sathanur R. Srinivasan 7  O besity—Findings from the Bogalusa Heart Study������������������������������� â•… 77 David S. Freedman and Heidi M. Blanck orbid Obesity and Premature Death in the Young������������������������������ â•… 93 8  M Pronabesh DasMahapatra and Camilo Fernandez Alonso

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9╇   T arget Organ Damage Related to Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youth����������������������������������尓������������������������������������尓����������������� â•… 99 Elaine M. Urbina 10  T he Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study   and the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor   Intervention Project (STRIP)����������������������������������尓������������������������������� ╇ 133 Markus Juonala, Costan G. Magnussen, Olli Simell, Harri Niinikoski, Olli T. Raitakari and Jorma S.A. Viikari 11  P revention of Heart Disease in Childhood—Encouragement of Primordial Prevention����������������������������������尓������������������������������������尓��� ╇ 143 Gerald S. Berenson and Arthur Pickoff 12  D ietary Intake of Children over Two Decades in a Community and an Approach for Modification����������������������������������尓�� ╇ 155 Theresa A. Nicklas and Carol E. O’Neil 13  C ardiovascular Health Promotion—Physical Fitness in the School Setting����������������������������������尓������������������������������������尓��������������������� ╇ 185 Marietta Orlowski, James Ebert and Arthur Pickoff 14  P rimordial Prevention Through School Health Promotion����������������� ╇ 199 Gerald S. Berenson and Sandra Owen Index����������������������������������尓������������������������������������尓������������������������������������尓�������� ╇ 209

Contributors

Abraham Aviv╇ The Center of Human Development and Aging, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA e-mail: [emailprotected] Gerald S. Berenson, MD╇ Department of Medicine, Pediatrics, Biochemistry, Epidemiology, Center for Cardiovascular Health, Tulane University School of Medicine and School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA e-mail: [emailprotected] Heidi M. Blanck, PhD╇ Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity, Obesity Prevention and Control Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention K-26, Atlanta, GA, USA e-mail: [emailprotected] Wei Chen, MD PhD╇ Department of Epidemiology, Center for Cardiovascular Health, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA e-mail: [emailprotected] Pronabesh DasMahapatra, MD MPH╇ Department of Epidemiology, Center for Cardiovascular Health, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA e-mail: [emailprotected], [emailprotected] James Ebert, MD, MBA, MPH, FAAP╇ Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA e-mail: [emailprotected] Camilo Fernandez Alonso, MD MS╇ Department of Epidemiology, Center for Cardiovascular Health, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA e-mail: [emailprotected], [emailprotected]

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David S. Freedman, PhD╇ Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity, Obesity Prevention and Control Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention K-26, Atlanta, GA, USA e-mail: [emailprotected] Thomas Giles, MD╇ Department of Medicine, Heart and Vascular Institute, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA e-mail: [emailprotected] Markus â•›Juonala, MD PhD╇ Department of Pediatrics, Medicine and Clinical Physiology, Research Center of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland e-mail: [emailprotected] Costan G. Magnussen, PhD╇ Department of Pediatrics, Medicine and Clinical Physiology, Research Center of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland e-mail: [emailprotected] Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melborne, Australia e-mail: [emailprotected] Quoc Manh Nguyen, MD MPH╇ Department of Epidemiology, Center for Cardiovascular Health, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA e-mail: [emailprotected] Theresa A. Nicklas, DrPH╇ Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA e-mail: [emailprotected] Harri Niinikoski, MD PhD╇ Department of Pediatrics, Medicine and Clinical Physiology, Research Center of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland e-mail: [emailprotected] Carol E. O’Neil, PhD RD╇ Human Nutrition and Food, School of Human Ecology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA e-mail: [emailprotected] Marietta Orlowski, PhD╇ Department of Community Health, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA e-mail: [emailprotected] Sandra Owen, BSN, MEd, FASHSA╇ Emerita, College of Education, Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA e-mail: [emailprotected] Arthur Pickoff, MD╇ Pediatrics and Community Health, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA e-mail: [emailprotected]

Contributors

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Olli T. Raitakari, MD PhD╇ Department of Pediatrics, Medicine and Clinical Physiology, Research Center of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland e-mail: [emailprotected] Olli Simell, MD PhD╇ Department of Pediatrics, Medicine and Clinical Physiology, Research Center of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland e-mail: [emailprotected] Sathanur R. Srinivasan, PhD╇ Department of Epidemiology, Biochemistry, Center for Cardiovascular Health, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA e-mail: [emailprotected] Elaine M. Urbina, MD╇ Department of Pediatrics, Division of Endocrinology, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA e-mail: [emailprotected] Preventive Cardiology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA Jorma S.A. Viikari, MD PhD╇ Department of Pediatrics, Medicine and Clinical Physiology, Research Center of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland e-mail: [emailprotected] Jihua Xu, MD╇ Department of Epidemiology, Center for Cardiovascular Health, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA e-mail: [emailprotected]

Chapter 1

Exploring Chromosomal Leukocyte Telomere Length Dynamics in the Bogalusa Heart Study Abraham Aviv and Wei Chen

Abstract╇ Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a biomarker of human aging in that it is relatively short in individuals who display aging-related diseases, principally atherosclerosis. The Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS) has provided unique settings to explore the mechanisms that impact LTL dynamics (LTL and its age-dependent attrition) in young adults. This chapter briefly reviews the background of LTL research and original observations on LTL dynamics and the relations to various indices of cardiovascular aging in the black–white cohort of the BHS. Specifically, the results based on both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, black–white difference, and genetic study are summarized. By now, there is a vast and sometimes conflicting literature about the links of LTL with aging and aging-related diseases. The original observations in the BHS were instrumental for the development of a whole new look at what LTL dynamics are all about and in what way they enlighten us about human aging. Keywords╇ Telomere length • Cardiovascular aging • Black–white difference • Longitudinal analysis

1.1  Introduction The Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS) has provided unique settings to explore the mechanisms that impact leukocyte telomere length (LTL) dynamics (LTL and its agedependent attrition) in young adults. The Study is distinguished not necessarily by its longitudinal nature; major studies such as the Framingham Heart Study and the Cardiovascular Health Study have also followed their participants for many years. However, BHS participants were recruited during childhood several decades ago and most have been followed up ever since. This feature, the biracial composition A. Aviv () The Center of Human Development and Aging, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA e-mail: [emailprotected] G. S. Berenson (ed.), Evolution of Cardio-Metabolic Risk from Birth to Middle Age, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-1451-9_1, ©Â€Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

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of the participants (whites and African Americans), the repository of blood specimens, much of which, unfortunately, perished in Hurricane Katrina, the numerous biochemical and physiological parameters, information diligently collected about features of growth and development, life styles and environmental factors, as well as genotypes and a host of cardiovascular phenotypes have provided a rich source of samples and data that enabled numerous investigations of the genesis of cardiovascular aging during the formative years and early adulthood. These same features provided the framework for studies of the mechanisms that fashion LTL dynamics in young adults. This chapter briefly reviews these studies, but before describing their findings and potential ramifications, it is essential to explain the biological underpinning of LTL dynamics.

1.2  L TL Dynamics Mirror Hematopoietic Stem Cell (HSC) Telomere Dynamics and Register the Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Burdens The basic question regarding the meaning of LTL dynamics has weighed on the discipline of telomere epidemiology from its very beginning. Like other human somatic cells, HSCs lack sufficient activity of telomerase [1–3], the enzyme that counteracts telomere shortening with each cell division [4]. Consequently, as HSC replicate their telomere length progressively shortens—a phenomenon that stems from the inability of DNA polymerase to replicate the lagging strand of DNA to its terminus [5]. Age-dependent telomere shortening in HSCs cannot be measured with current methodology, because HSCs are unavailable in sufficient quantities for routine measurements of their telomere lengths. Therefore, telomere shortening in granulocytes, which are post-mitotic cells with a short biological life, was originally used to model HSC replication kinetics and telomere dynamics [6]. However, recent research established that age-dependent shortening in the mean length of telomeres from all leukocytes, i.e., LTL, is as good a surrogate of HSC telomere dynamics as age-dependent telomere shortening in granulocytes [7, 8]. This was shown on two levels, first in newborns and then throughout the human life course. Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) are much more abundant than HSCs and in newborns many of them circulate in the blood. Different leukocyte lineages in the newborn blood, including granulocytes, have similar telomere length as that of HPCs, and by inference telomere length of HSCs, which are situated slightly higher than HPCs in the hematopoietic system hierarchy [8]. Moreover, LTL is highly correlated with telomere length in granulocytes throughout the human lifespan [8]. It is safe to conclude, therefore, that due to the hierarchical nature of the hematopoietic system, LTL dynamics largely register telomere dynamics in HSCs [7]. LTL is highly variable among newborns [9–12] and its rate of shortening is rapid during the period of growth and development [7, 11–14]. That is evidently because the HSC pool expands in tandem with the growing soma and at the same time it

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must sustain the expansion of the HPC pool. These processes entail symmetric replications (each replicating HSC gives rise to two daughter HSCs) and asymmetric replications (each replicating HSC gives rise to one HSC and one HPC) [15], which result in rapid telomere shortening. During adulthood LTL shortening is much slower than earlier in life and it primarily reflects ‘housekeeping’ replicative activity of HSCs to accommodate the homeostatic needs of the individual. How do LTL dynamics, reflecting HSC telomere dynamics, figure in the biology of aging and aging-related diseases? Clearly, HSC replication, expressed in age-dependent LTL shortening, charts the course of growth and development. But in addition, LTL shortening due to HSC replication evidently records the accruing burden of inflammation and oxidative stress. This unique ability stems from the fact that chronic inflammation engenders a greater expenditure of leukocytes, which must be accommodated for by increased HSC replication. Moreover, as telomeres are highly sensitive to the hydroxyl radical [16, 17], increased oxidative stress promotes more loss of telomeres repeats per each replication of HSCs. Thus, LTL attrition since birth is a record of not only growth and development but also the cumulative burden of inflammation and oxidative stress over the individual’s life course. These features of LTL dynamics might explain the observed associations of shorten LTL with atherosclerosis [18–25], an aging-related disease that is marked by a chronic but indolent increase in inflammation and oxidative stress [26–28].

1.3  I nsight Gained from Studying LTL Dynamics   in the BHS Most studies that explored the relations between LTL and various indices of aging were based on the cross-sectional model in which LTLs in persons of different ages were correlated with phenotypes of interest. But the longitudinal nature of the BHS has provided the opportunity to chart age-dependent LTL shortening in the individuals. The BHS was the first to show the wide inter-individual variation in the rate of age-dependent LTL shortening [29, 30]. What’s more, the study found that the rate of LTL attrition in the individual was correlated with the change in body mass index (BMI) over time, so that individuals with a greater weight gain had a faster rate of LTL shortening [29]. The link between BMI and other indices of obesity has been subsequently confirmed in other large-scale cross-sectional studies [31, 32]. The BMI-LTL connection might be mediated through insulin resistance [29, 33, 34], which is a state of heightened inflammation, or because the increase in the BMI itself. Inflammation might also explain the intriguing association of LTL with HDLcholesterol that was observed in the Bogalusa Heart Study, as HDL-cholesterol [35] displays anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities [36–38]. The BHS was also instrumental for the findings that LTL is longer in African Americans than whites [39], a finding replicated in the Family Heart Study and the Cardiovascular Health Study [39, 40]. This finding was unexpected, given that

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LTL is shorter in whites who suffer from cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the greater susceptibility of African Americans to overall CVD. However, the LTLCVD connection in whites is primarily due to a short LTL in patients with coronary atherosclerosis. Although African Americans are more susceptible than whites to hypertension [41, 42], left ventricular hypertrophy and kidney failure [43–48], they are less prone than whites to coronary atherosclerosis, as confirmed by coronary artery calcification studies [49–53]. Autopsy data from Bogalusa and that of PDAY show more vascular lesions in African Americans, but earlier and more coronary fibrous plaques in white males. Although the underlying mechanisms for the longer LTL in African Americans are not known at present, they might relate to the benign ethnic neutropenia that is often displayed by African Americans [54–58]. Benign ethnic neutropenia evidently results from diminished recruitment of neutrophils from the bone marrow rather than increased neutrophil adherence in post-capillary venules [55, 57, 59]. This would entail diminished stimulus for HSC replication, particularly during growth and development, when HSC replication proceeds at a relatively rapid pace. Of note, benign ethnic neutropenia largely stems from variants of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (↜DARC) [60, 61] and a recent genome-wide association study, which included the Bogalusa Heart Study, showed that a locus that harbors the chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 gene (↜CXCR4) is associated with LTL in whites [62]. Both DARC and CXCR4 encode proteins in control of neutrophil trafficking across the bone marrow. The longitudinal evaluation of LTL dynamics in BHS participants had generated two intriguing observations that were subsequently replicated by others. First, the rate of LTL attrition was proportional to LTL at baseline [30, 35, 63], meaning that, everything else being equal, individuals with a longer LTL at baseline displayed a faster rate of age-dependent LTL shortening. Second a small subset of participants displayed LTL lengthening rather than LTL shortening during the follow-up period [29, 30, 33, 35]. The dependence of the rate of LTL shortening on LTL itself might be explained by the fact that oxidative stress accelerates telomere shortening. As longer telomeres are a bigger target for free radicals, the amount of telomere repeats that are clipped off with each replication might be greater for longer than shorter telomeres. Although the original finding of LTL elongation observed in BHS participants was replicated by other longitudinal studies [64–68], a recent systematic evaluation of the underlying cause in BHS participants indicates that that LTL elongation is in fact an artifact that relates to the measurement error of LTL in relation to the duration of the follow-up [63]. This was shown by examining the relation between LTL elongation and the duration of follow-up and factoring the effect of the measurement error on this relation. The notion that LTL lengthening with age is primarily the result of measurement error might be difficult to accept, since it was reported by different groups. But both theoretical considerations and the empirical data generated based on recent LTL data from BHS participants unequivocally indicate that this is the case under most circ*mstances. Elongation of LTL would suggest that HSC have switched to

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a telomere elongation mode and that LTL dynamics have somehow decoupled from age, both of which are highly unlikely.

1.4  Conclusions By now, there is a vast and sometimes conflicting literature about the links of LTL with aging and aging-related diseases. That said, the original observations in the BHS were instrumental for the development of a whole new look at what LTL dynamics are all about and in what way they enlighten us about human aging.

References 1. Broccoli D, Young JW, de Lange T (1995) Telomerase activity in normal and malignant hematopoietic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:9082–9086 2. Yui J, Chiu CP, Lansdorp PM (1998) Telomerase activity in candidate stem cells from fetal liver and adult bone marrow. Blood 91:3255–3262 3. Chiu CP, Dragowska W, Kim NW, Vaziri H, Yui J, Thomas TE, Harley CB, Lansdorp PM (1996) Differential expression of telomerase activity in hematopoietic progenitors from adult human bone marrow. Stem Cells 14:239–248 4. Blackburn EH (2005) Telomeres and telomerase: their mechanisms of action and the effects of altering their functions. FEBS Lett 579:859–862 5. Olovnikov AM (1996) Telomeres, telomerase, and aging: origin of the theory. Exp Gerontol 31:443–448 6. Shepherd BE, Guttorp P, Lansdorp PM, Abkowitz JL (2004) Estimating human hematopoietic stem cell kinetics using granulocyte telomere lengths. Exp Hematol 32:1040–1050 7. Sidorov I, Kimura M, Yashin A, Aviv A (2009) Leukocyte telomere dynamics and human hematopoietic stem cell kinetics during somatic growth. Exp Hematol 37:514–524 8. Kimura M, Gazitt Y, Cao X, Zhao X, Lansdorp PM, Aviv A (2010) Synchrony of telomere length among hematopoietic cells. Exp Hematol 38:854–859 9. Okuda K, Bardeguez A, Gardner JP, Rodriguez P, Ganesh V, Kimura M, Skurnick J, Awad G, Aviv A (2002) Telomere length in the newborn. Pediatr Res 52:377–381 10. Akkad A, Hastings R, Konje JC, Bell SC, Thurston H, Williams B (2006) Telomere length in small-for-gestational-age babies. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 113:318–323 11. Rufer N, Brümmendorf TH, Kolvraa S, Bischoff C, Christensen K, Wadsworth L, Schulzer M, Lansdorp PM (1999) Telomere fluorescence measurements in granulocytes and T lymphocyte subsets point to a high turnover of hematopoietic stem cells and memory T cells in early childhood. J Exp Med 190:157–167 12. Frenck RW Jr, Blackburn EH, Shannon KM (1999) The rate of telomere sequence loss in human leukocytes varies with age. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:5607–5610 13. Zeichner SL, Palumbo P, Feng Y, Xiao X, Gee D, Sleasman J, Goodenow M, Biggar R, Dimitrov D (1999) Rapid telomere shortening in children. Blood 93:2824–2830 14. Baerlocher GM, Rice K, Vulto I, Lansdorp PM (2007) Longitudinal data on telomere length in leukocytes from newborn baboons support a marked drop in stem cell turnover around 1 year of age. Aging Cell 6:121–123 15. Morrison SJ, Kimble J (2006) Asymmetric and symmetric stem-cell divisions in the development of cancer. Nature 441:1068–1074

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16. Tchirkov A, Lansdorp PM (2003) Role of oxidative stress in telomere shortening in cultured fibroblasts from normal individuals and patients with ataxia-telangiectasia. Hum Mol Genet 12:227–232 17. Sitte N, Saretzki G, von Zglinicki T (1998) Accelerated telomere shortening in fibroblasts after extended periods of confluency. Free Radic Biol Med 24:885–893 18. Butt HZ, Atturu G, London NJ, Sayers RD, Bown MJ (2010) Telomere length dynamics in vascular disease: a review. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 40:17–26 (21 May 2010) 19. Samani NJ, van der Harst P (2008) Biological ageing and cardiovascular disease. Heart 94:537–539 20. Oeseburg H, de Boer RA, van Gilst WH, van der Harst P (2010) Telomere biology in healthy aging and disease. Pflugers Arch 459:259–268 21. Brouilette SW, Moore JS, McMahon AD, Thompson JR, Ford I, Shepherd J, Packard CJ, Samani NJ (2007) Telomere length, risk of coronary heart disease, and statin treatment in the West of Scotland Primary Prevention Study: a nested case-control study. Lancet 369:107–114 22. van der Harst P, van der Steege G, de Boer RA, Voors AA, Hal AS, Mulder MJ, Van Gilst WH, van Veldhuissen DJ (2007) Telomere length of circulating leukocytes is decreased in patients with chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 49:1459–1464 23. Benetos A, Gardner JP, Zureik M, Labat C, Xiaobin L, Adamopoulos C, Temmar M, Bean KE, Aviv A (2004) Short telomeres are associated with increased carotid artery atherosclerosis in hypertensive subjects. Hypertension 43:182–185 24. O’Donnell CJ, Demissie S, Kimura M, Levy D, Gardner JP, White C, D’Agostino RB, Wolf PA, Polak J, Cupples A, Aviv A (2008) Leukocyte telomere length and carotid artery intimal medial thickness: the Framingham Heart Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 28:1165– 1171 25. Mainous AG 3rd, Codd V, Diaz VA, Schoepf UJ, Everett CJ, Player MS, Samani NJ (2010) Leukocyte telomere length and coronary artery calcification. Atherosclerosis 21:262–267 26. Weber C, Zernecke A, Libby P (2008) The multifaceted contributions of leukocyte subsets to atherosclerosis: lessons from mouse models. Nat Rev Immunol 8:802–815 27. Ross R (1999) Atherosclerosis—an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med 340:115–126 28. Schleicher E, Friess U (2007) Oxidative stress, AGE, and atherosclerosis. Kidney Int Suppl 106:S17–S26 29. Gardner JP, Li S, Srinivasan SR, Chen W, Kimura M, Lu X, Berenson GS, Aviv A (2005) Rise in insulin resistance is associated with escalated telomere attrition. Circulation 111:2171– 2177 30. Aviv A, Chen W, Gardner JP Kimura M, Brimacombe M, Cao X, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS (2009) Leukocyte telomere dynamics: longitudinal findings among young adults in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Epidemiol 169:323–329 31. Valdes AM, Andrew T, Gardner JP, Kimura M, Oelsner E, Cherkas LM, Aviv A, Spector TD (2005) Increased body mass and cigarette smoking are associated with short telomeres in women. Lancet 366:662–664 32. Prescott J, McGrath M, Lee IM, Buring JE, De Vivo I (2010) Telomere length and genetic analyses in population-based studies of endometrial cancer risk. Cancer 116:4275–4282 33. Demissie S, Levy D, Benjamin EJ, Cupples LA, Gardner JP, Herbert A, Kimura M, Larson MG, Meigs JB, Keaney JF, Aviv A (2006) Insulin resistance, oxidative stress, hypertension, and leukocyte telomere length in men from the Framingham Heart Study. Aging Cell 5:325– 330 34. Atzmon G, Cho M, Cawthon RM, Budagov T, Katz M, Yang X, Siegel G, Bergman A, Huffman DM, Schechter CB, Wright WE, Shay JW, Barzilai N, Govindaraju DR, Suh Y (2010) Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: genetic variation in human telomerase is associated with telomere length in Ashkenazi centenarians. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(1):1710–1717 35. Chen W, Gardner JP, Kimura M, Brimacombe M, Cao X, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS, Aviv A (2009) Leukocyte telomere length is associated with HDL cholesterol levels: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Atherosclerosis 205:620–625

1â•… Exploring Chromosomal Leukocyte Telomere Length Dynamics

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36. Norata GD, Catapano AL (2005) Molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory and protective effect of HDL on the endothelium. Vasc Health Risk Manage 1:119–129 37. Negre-Salvayre A, Dousset N, Ferretti G et€al (2006) Antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of high-density lipoproteins in vascular cells. Free Radic Biol Med 41:1031–1040 38. Ansell BJ (2007) Targeting the anti-inflammatory effects of high-density lipoprotein. Am J Cardiol 100(11 A):3–9 39. Hunt SC, Chen W, Gardner JP, Kimura M, Srinivasan SR, Eckfeldt JH, Berenson GS, Aviv A (2008) Leukocyte telomeres are longer in African Americans than in whites: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study and the Bogalusa Heart Study. Aging Cell 7:451–458 40. Fitzpatrick AL, Kronmal RA, Kimura M, Gardne JP, Psaty BM, Jenny NS, Tracy RP, Hardikar S, Aviv A Leukocyte telomere length and mortality in the cardiovascular health study. J Gerontol Biol Sci Med Sci (in press) 41. Grim CE, Robinson M (1996) Blood pressure variation in blacks: genetic factors. Semin Nephrol 16:83–93 42. Nesbitt SD (2005) Hypertension in black patients: special issues and considerations. Curr Hypertens Rep 7:244–248 43. Stewart AD, Millasseau SC, Dawes M, Kyd PA, Chambers JB, Ritter JM, Chowienczyk PJ (2006) Aldosterone and left ventricular hypertrophy in Afro-Caribbean subjects with low renin hypertension. Am J Hypertens 9:19–24 44. El-Gharbawy AH, Nadig VS, Kotchen JM, Grim CE, Sagar KB, Kaldunski M, Hamet P, Pausova Z, Gaudet D, Gossard F, Kotchen TA (2001) Arterial pressure, left ventricular mass, and aldosterone in essential hypertension. Hypertension 37:845–850 45. Moe GW, Tu J (2010) Heart failure in the ethnic minorities. Curr Opin Cardiol 25:124–130 46. Yancy CW, Strong M (2004) The natural history, epidemiology, and prognosis of heart failure in African Americans. Congest Heart Fail 10:15–18 47. Martins D, Tareen N, Norris KC (2002) The epidemiology of end-stage renal disease among African Americans. Am J Med Sci 323:65–71 48. Martínez-Maldonado M (2001) Role of hypertension in the progression of chronic renal disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 16(1):63–66 49. Tang W, Detrano RC, Brezden OS, Georgiou D, French WJ, Wong ND, Doherty TM, Brundage BH (1995) Racial differences in coronary calcium prevalence among high-risk adults. Am J Cardiol 75:1088–1091 50. Aiyer AN, Kip KE, Marroquin OC, Mulukutla SR, Edmundowicz D, Reis SE (2007) Racial differences in coronary artery calcification are not attributed to differences in lipoprotein particle sizes: the heart strategies concentrating on risk evaluation (Heart SCORE) Study. Am Heart J 153:328–324 51. Detrano R, Guerci AD, Carr JJ et€ al (2008) Coronary calcium as a predictor of coronary events in four racial ethnic groups. New Engl J Med 358:1336–1345 52. LaMonte MJ, FitzGerald SJ, Church TS et€al (2005) Coronary artery calcium score and coronary heart disease events in a large cohort of asymptomatic men and women. Am J Epidemiol 162:421–429 53. Arad Y, Goodman KJ, Roth M, Newstein D, Guerci AD (2005) Coronary calcification, coronary disease risk factors, C-reactive protein, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events: the St. Francis Heart Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 46:158–165 54. Mayr FB, Spiel AO, Leitner JM, Firbas C, Kliegel T, Jilma B (2007) Ethnic differences in plasma levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). Trans Res 149:10–14 55. Phillips D, Rezvani K, Bain BJ (2000) Exercise induced mobilization of marginated granulocyte pool in the investigation of ethnic neutropenia. J Clin Pathol 53:481–483 56. Haddy TB, Rana SR, Castro O (1999) Benign ethnic neutropenia: what is a normal absolute neutrophil count? J Lab Clin Med 133:15–22

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57. Bain BJ, Phillips D, Thomson K, Richardson D, Gabriel I (2000) Investigation of the effect of marathon running on leukocyte counts of subjects of different ethnic origins: relevance to aetiology of ethnic neutropenia. Br J Haemotol 108:483–487 58. Broun GO Jr, Herbig FK, Hamilton JR (1966) Leukopenia in Negroes. N Engl J Med 275:1410–1413 59. Athens JW, Raab SO, Haaab OP, Mauer AM, Ashenbrucker H, Cartwright GE, Wintrobe MM (1961) Leukokinetic studies III. The distribution of granulocytes in the blood of normal subjects. J Clin Invest 40:159–164 60. Reich D, Nalls MA, Kao WH, Akylbekova EL, Tandon A, Patterson N, Mullikin J, Hsueh WC, Cheng CY, Coresh J, Boerwinkle E, Li M, Waliszewska A, Neubauer J, Li R, Leak TS, Ekunwe L, Files JC, Hardy CL, Zmuda JM, Taylor HA, Ziv E, Harris TB, Wilson JG (2009) Reduced neutrophil count in people of African descent is due to a regulatory variant in the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines gene. PLoS Genet 5:e1000360 61. Nalls MA, Wilson JG, Patterson NJ, Tandon A, Zmuda JM, Huntsman S, Garcia M, Hu D, Li R, Beamer BA, Patel KV, Akylbekova EL, Files JC, Hardy CL, Buxbaum SG, Taylor HA, Reich D, Harris TB, Ziv E (2008) Admixture mapping of white cell count: genetic locus responsible for lower white blood cell count in the Health ABC and Jackson Heart studies. Am J Hum Genet 82:81–87 (Erratum in: Am J Hum Genet 2008; 82: 532) 62. Levy D, Neuhausen BL, Hunt SC, Kimura M, Hwang S-H, Chen W, Bis JC, Fitzpatrick AL, Smith E, Andrew D, Gardner JP, Srinivasan SR, Schork N, Rotter JI, Herbig U, Psaty, BM, Sastrasinh M, Murray SS, Vasan RS, Province MA, Glazer NL, Lu X, Cao X, Kronmal R, Mangino M, Soranzo N, Spector TD, Berenson GS, Aviv A (2010) Genome-wide association identifies OBFC1 as a locus involved in human leukocyte telomere biology. Proc Nat Acad Sci U S A 107:9293–9298 63. Chen W, Kimura M, Kim S, Cao X, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS, Kark JD, Aviv A. Longitudinal vs. cross-sectional evaluations of leukocyte telomere length dynamics: age-dependent telomere shortening is the rule. J Gerontol Biol Sci Med Sci (in press) 64. Martin-Ruiz CM, Gussekloo J, van Heemst D et€al (2005) Telomere length in white blood cells is not associated with morbidity or mortality in the oldest old: a population-based study. Aging Cell 4:287–290 65. Ehrlenbach S, Willeit P, Kiechl S et€al (2009) Influences on the reduction of relative telomere length over 10 years in the population-based Bruneck Study: introduction of a wellcontrolled high-throughput assay. Int J Epidemiol 38:1725–1734 66. Nordfjäll K, Svenson U, Norrback KF, Adolfsson R, Lenner P, Roos G (2009) The individual blood cell telomere attrition rate is telomere length dependent. PLoS Genet 5:e1000375 67. Farzaneh-Far R, Lin J, Epel E, Lapham K, Blackburn E, Whooley MA (2010) Telomere length trajectory and its determinants in persons with coronary artery disease: longitudinal findings from the heart and soul study. PloS One 5:e8612 68. Farzaneh-Far R, Lin J, Epel ES, Harris WS, Blackburn EH, Whooley MA (2010) Association of marine omega-3 fatty acid levels with telomeric aging in patients with coronary heart disease. JAMA 303:250–257

Chapter 2

Fetal Origins of Variables Related   to Cardio-Metabolic Risk Sathanur R. Srinivasan

Abstract╇ Low birth weight for gestational age, regardless of socio-economic background and geographical location, is considered a risk factor for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus in later life. This overview focuses on the racial (black–white) divergence in birth weight and adverse effects of low birth weight on aspects of cardio-metabolic risk involving anthropometric, hemodynamic, metabolic and inflammatory variables during growth periods of childhood, adolescence, and adulthood along with pulsatile behavior of the vasculature in adulthood noted in the Bogalusa Heart Study cohort. Several putative mechanisms linking these adverse relationships are discussed, thereby providing a rationale for primordial prevention. Keywords╇ Arterial stiffness • Cardio-metabolic risk • CV risk factor • Fetal growth • Inflammatory marker • Low birth weight • Racial difference

2.1  Introduction Low birth weight for gestational age is considered to be an indicator of metabolic imprinting and developmental plasticity associated with a compromised intrauterine growth and development [1–5]. Developmental plasticity reflects gene expression mediated in part by epigenetic processes in response to environmental factors and subsequent risk of diseases [6]. Studies world-wide, regardless of socio-economic background, have linked low birth weight to increased risk of developing insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and type 2 diabetes [7–10], although some investigators question this relationship [11, 12]. This chapter highlights the effect of low birth weight on aspects of cardio-metabolic risk noted in the Bogalusa Heart Study biracial (black–white) cohort [13–22]. S. R. Srinivasan () Department of Epidemiology, Biochemistry, Center for Cardiovascular Health, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA e-mail: [emailprotected] G. S. Berenson (ed.), Evolution of Cardio-Metabolic Risk from Birth to Middle Age, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-1451-9_2, ©Â€Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

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2.2  Racial (Black–White) Difference Birth weight of children born to Bogalusa residents between January, 1974 and June, 1975 were examined by race. Of these children, 100% blacks and 97.5% whites participated in the study [13]. As illustrated in Fig.€ 2.1, white children at birth when compared to black children consistently weighed more. Ninety percent of white newborns weighed between 2353€g (5th percentile) and 4186€g (95th percentile); whereas for black newborns the corresponding values were 1962€ g and 3989€g, respectively. This black–white contrast in birth weight for gestational age was also seen in later studies, including our own [15, 18, 23, 24]. The effect that socio-economic and genetic factors may have on the birth weight of these two racial groups were indirectly assessed by comparing the birth weight data by race of children born in Bogalusa public vs private hospitals. The racial make-up of children born at the state hospital was 66% black and 34% white; at the private hospital, 19% black and 81% white. At both hospitals, white neonates weighed significantly more than their black counterparts, although in both races those born at the private hospital weighed significantly more than those born at the public hospital. Further, mean birth weight of blacks born at the private hospital was almost identical to the mean birth weight of whites born at the public hospital. Taken together, these findings indicate that both socio-economic and genetic factors influence the weight at birth.

2.3  R elation to Anthropometric, Metabolic,   and Hemodynamic Variables

Fig. 2.1↜渀 Cumulative frequency distributions for weight at birth of black and white Bogalusa newborns: the Bogalusa Heart Study. [13]

CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY (%)

Earlier studies have linked low birth weight to adverse levels of cardiovascular risk factor variables in childhood and adolescence [25–29]. However, information is scant on data linking low birth weight to longitudinal trends of adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, and glucose homeostasis variables (glucose, insulin, and insulin 100 80 60 40

Whites, n = 266 Blacks, n = 172

20

1.0

2.0 3.0 WEIGHT (KG)

4.0

5.0

2â•… Fetal Origins of Variables Related to Cardio-Metabolic Risk

11

Table 2.1↜渀 Levels (meanâ•›±â•›SD) of risk variables during childhood and adolescence by birth weight: the Bogalusa Heart Study. [14] Variable Childhood (4–11 years) Adolescence (12–18 years) Low birth Control Low birth Control weight weight BMI (kg/m2) 16.7â•›±â•›2.6 17.5â•›±â•›2.9 21.6â•›±â•›5.2 22.7â•›±â•›5.0 Subsc. skinfold (mm) 8.2â•›±â•›5.1 8.3â•›±â•›6.4 15.9â•›±â•›10.0 16.0â•›±â•›10.7 96.4â•›±â•›9.0 Syst. BP (mm€Hg) 98.6â•›±â•›8.1 108.8â•›±â•›9.1 105.2â•›±â•›8.7 57.2â•›±â•›10.2 Diast. BP (mm€Hg) 58.7â•›±â•›7.9 66.1â•›±â•›8.0 66.4â•›±â•›7.4 62.6â•›±â•›23.2 Triglycerides (mg/dL) 52.8â•›±â•›20.3 87.1â•›±â•›29.0 83.2â•›±â•›35.3 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 44.3â•›±â•›22.6* 54.7â•›±â•›17.4 49.9â•›±â•›12.8 51.2â•›±â•›11.5 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 76.0â•›±â•›35.4* 68.6â•›±â•›37.6 99.5â•›±â•›24.7 98.4â•›±â•›24.3 Glucose (mg/dL) 79.7â•›±â•›8.1 80.9â•›±â•›9.7 85.4â•›±â•›8.2** 81.6â•›±â•›7.4 7.4â•›±â•›4.6 14.8â•›±â•›7.5 13.2â•›±â•›8.6 Insulin (μU/mL) 8.5â•›±â•›5.7 HOMA-IR 1.7â•›±â•›1.2 1.6â•›±â•›1.0 3.0â•›±â•›2.4 2.7â•›±â•›2.0 Difference between groups (adjusted for age, race, and gender), *pâ•›=â•›0.05; **pâ•›=â•›0.02 HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance

resistance index) measured simultaneously and serially during the developmental periods of childhood and adolescence. The Bogalusa Heart Study subjects followed from childhood to adolescence by repeated surveys were categorized into singleton and full term low birth weight (below the gestation age- and race-specific 10th percentile) and control (between the gestation age- and race-specific 50th and 75th percentiles) groups [14]. As shown in Table€2.1, low birth weight vs control group had significantly lower mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol during childhood (ages 4–11 years); higher glucose during adolescence (ages 12–18 years). In addition, yearly rates of change from childhood to adolescence in systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and glucose were faster, and body mass index (BMI) slower among the low birth weight group. In a multivariate analysis of the serial data, presented in Table€2.2, the Table 2.2↜渀 Independent association of low birth weight with longitudinal trends of systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and glucose from childhood to adolescence. [14] Independent variables Syst. BP Triglycerides Glucose retained β† p-value β p-value β p-value Birth weight (low vs 3.84 0.02 48.6 0.08 15.20 0.07 control) Gender (male vs female) – – – – 4.31

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